Periodontal desease very often causes the destruction of the supporting tissues surrounding the tooth, leading to mobility, up to the loss of it. 
In many cases, it is possible to fill these defects , regenerating the missing tissues (bone, periodontal ligament, cement and gingiva) and achieving to save the tooth.
The small regeneration surgery is done with a simple local anestesia, and a little trauma to the patient, inserting into the defect areas particular substances, after an accurate cleaning. 
These substances stimulate tissues to grow spontaniously in a biochemical way (Amelogenines), or in a mechanical way, isolating the defect (Membranes) or filling it with synthetic or animal – derivated bone substitutes. These methods are called: "G.T.R." (Guided Tissue Regeneration). 

In consequence of a non treated periodontal desease , a tooth could be considered "lost" and extracted, remaining a too small quantity of bone to insert an implant in that site. 

The bone can be lost even around teeth not affected by periodontal desease, after traumatic extractions or after accidents or simply because too much time has passed by the extraction and has caused a process of bone atrophy due to the missing function. 

In these situations it is possible to practise the "G.B.R." (Guided Bone Regeneration) that allows to increase the quantity of bone, using methods similar to the previous ones.
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